Reward of Hajj
Hajj is one of the greatest actions of worship. The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “An accepted Hajj has no reward other than Jannah.” In other words, if you have the Hajj accepted, then you will get Jannah. No other action has been placed to that level where an accepted action has nothing other than Jannah.
Types of Hajj
There are three types of Hajj you can do.
- Hajj qiran is Hajj and ‘Umrah without a gap in the middle.
- Hajj ifrad is no ‘Umrah and just Hajj. It is very simple and not that complicated.
- Hajj tamattu’, you do ‘Umrah and take a gap of three, four, five days. Some people go to Madinah, or you just worship and pray. After you finish the ‘Umrah, you get out of ihram, and you may live a normal life until the 8th day of Dhu’l-Hijjah, which is the first day of Hajj and when you enter into the ihram again. This is Hajj tamattu’.
IHRAM First action of Hajj: you enter into the state of ihram. This state of ihram is a spiritual state and not necessarily a physical one. Once you have entered into ihram, certain things that were halal now become haram for you.
Miqat: There are specific areas outside of Makkah where you enter into the state of ihram called the miqat.
If it so happens that you pass the state of ihram – you pass the miqat without saying “Labbayk allahhumma labbayk,” without making the talbiyah of Hajj – then you have missed a wajib.
Wajib: Any time you miss a wajib, you may make it up by giving a sacrifice.
Your Hajj will still be accepted. By definition, something that is wajib can be made up.
Rukn (pillar): What cannot be made up is something in Arabic called a Rukn (pillar). If you miss a Rukn, you have no Hajj. You cannot make up a rukn.
Hajj has rukn and wajibat. Entering into ihram at the Miqat is wajib. So suppose you fell asleep and you woke up and the plane is landing in Jeddah, it is not as if your Hajj is gone. You have missed a Wajib. You enter into ihram in Jeddah, but you must pay a sacrifice, a badn. If you miss multiple items, you must give multiple hadys.
You enter into the state of ihram. It is sunnah – and when I say sunnah, it means you should do it, but if you don’t there is no sin and your Hajj is complete.
It is sunnah to purify yourself completely, which means you shave your pubic hair and you trim your nails before you enter into ihram because you are not allowed to do it while in ihram, so you want to be pure in that state.[For men,] it is sunnah to perfume yourself before entering ihram. If you do not apply perfume you will not lose anything of Hajj because this is sunnah.
Prohibitions in Ihram
You enter into ihram before Jeddah. What is prohibited upon you when you enter into the state of ihram?
- Shaving or trimming the hair.
- Trimming the nails.
- For men only: Wearing a sewn garment.
- For men only: covering the hair.
- This applies to clothes and body. You avoid perfume.
- You are not allowed to hunt.
- You are not allowed to get married in a state of ihram.
- Any type of sexual foreplay with your spouse.
- Intercourse with your wife.
What to do if I break the rules?
Hair and Nails; what is prohibited is to intentionally cut or trim the hair and the nails. Anything that is unintentional is overlooked.
If you intentionally shave or trim and there is no reason to do so, then you are sinful. If there is a reason to do so, then you are not sinful.
In both cases, you must give a penalty.
If you wear a stitched garment intentionally then you must also pay the same fidyah, one of these three things. However, if it is done unintentionally there is no fidyah whatsoever because you didn’t do it intentionally.
When there is a legitimate reason – you may break a rule and give the fidyah later on. The hadith of Ka’b (RA) shows us when there is a need, you may do it.
And then you may give the fidya
If you put perfume accidentally, as soon as you remember or somebody reminds you, go and wash, and there is no fidyah. If you put it on intentionally – and there might be a legitimate reason you have to give a fidyah.
What is a fidyah? It is one of three things:
- Fast three days when you come back. You don’t have to fast in Makkah.
- Feed six people.
If you are going to feed the people, the fidyah should be preferably the people of Makkah and the poor people in Hajj at that time, but it is not wajib and you may feed people when you come back. Fasting should be done when you come back and should not be done during Hajj.
We go to Makkah and do ‘Umrah, tawaf, sa’ee, and trimming of the hair. Scholars say that if you are going to do tamattu’, then you should delay the shaving for the Hajj because that is more preferred.
Men expose the right arm during tawaf . If you don’t show the right arm, no problem because it is sunnah but it doesn’t ruin your Hajj at all and has nothing to do with the Hajj.
Once you trim your hair, you are out of the state of ihram.
Difference Between Going to Makkah First and Going to Madinah First
If you are going to Madinah first, you don’t have to worry about ihram, which is why a lot of hujjaj try to find a group that is going to Madinah first because it saves them the hassle of entering ihram on an airplane. When you go to Madinah, it is outside of the miqat. When you land in Jeddah, you will take a bus or a plane to Madinah. It doesn’t matter that Jeddah is inside the miqat because you are going to leave and come back in again.
Right outside of Madinah there is a place called Dhu’l-Hulayfah where you go for ihram, pray two raka’at and wear your ihram and move on. You may put your ihram on when you are in Madinah,but you say “the intention for Umrah at Dhu’l Hulayfah”
If you are going to Makkah first, then you have to wear your ihram in the plane before you land in Jeddah.
8th of Dhu’l-Hijjah
The 8th of Dhu’l-Hijjah is the first day of Hajj. The 8th of Dhu’l-Hijjah is sunnah. If something happens on this day and you do not go to Mina, you may skip it all and go directly to ‘Arafah.
Where do you wear your ihram from on the 8th? Wherever you are. Where do you make the niyyah? In your hotel room. That is for the tamattu’. Basically from where you are you will make the niyyah.
You will then go to Mina. The sunnah is to get there before zuhr, but if you are delayed by crowds and traffic, your Hajj is still completely valid.
“Once you arrive at Mina, you pray Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha Salah Qasr (shortened) in Jamat. Also, pray Fajar in Jamat. Apart from Salah, take lots of rest, read Qur’an, Dhikr etc”.
9th of Dhu’l-Hijjah
The 9th is the day of ‘Arafah and if you miss this day, you have no Hajj. You will go the most sacred place on earth at that time and spend the entire day on the plains of ‘Arafah. It is wajib to get there before maghrib. You cannot leave ‘Arafah before maghrib. By the way, in our times you cannot leave because the government closes the roads, so there is no issue of you leaving and the roads are literally blocked. They open up the gates at maghrib.
‘Arafah is the main time of Hajj. That is the time you will go to ‘Arafah and combine zuhr and ‘asr (two and two) and for the rest of the hours you have, it is the time of du’a’ and dhikr. It is the time of praying and begging for forgiveness. That is the time for pleading with AllÄh for a better life in this world and the next. This is hajj. Nothing is better for you at that time than du’a’.
Another simple advice is to drink lots of water. This is a dehydration day and a very difficult time. Also, please do not wander from your tent on ‘Arafah. The most difficult time to get lost is the day of ‘Arafah.
Some Practical Advice:
In Mina, make a mental note or physical note of your tent number.
Memorize your tent number because it is that tent you will come back to.
In ‘Arafah there is no numbering system because it is one day. Don’t get lost on ‘Arafah. ‘Arafah is the day of ‘ibadah, du’a’ and dhikr.
From Mina, you go to ‘Arafah in the day. In the night, you go to Muzdalifah.
Muzdalifah is the time when you pray maghrib and ‘isha’ jam’ and qasr (3 and 2) and your witr as well and then you go to sleep.
It is commonly said that you should pick your stones from Muzdalifah. The Shari’ah does not even hint or suggest that, it is more a cultural addition. You may pick your stones from anywhere as the Shari’ah does not specify. There is not even a fabricated hadith that specifies picking the stones from Muzdalifah. Another reason why you might want to pick your stones from Muzdalifah is because there are a lot of stones in Muzdalifah, so it is just easier to pick stones.
In an authentic hadith, the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “…Let it be like a chickpea seed.”
You choose seven small ones.
Now we have done the 9th, the night of the 9th, and have woken up preferably in Muzdalifah. The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) allowed women and elderly to leave Muzdalifah early. There is no sin, no penalty, and no fidyah. It is permissible to leave after midnight. The people who are in charge of these people may leave with them and there is no penalty.
It is seven stones for the first day, and then 21 and 21 for the other two days, so it is 49 total, but you don’t have to pick them all at once, and you don’t have to pick them all from Muzdalifah.
You wake up in Muzdalifah. If you have left earlier, there is no problem if there is a reason eg: elderly, pregnant, if you have a baby with you. If you don’t have a reason, then you shouldn’t leave Muzdalifah and should wake up for fajr there.
10th of Dhu’l-Hijjah
On the 10th day, there are four actions that you have to do. Any two of them will get you out of the minor ihram, and all four will get you out of ihram totally.
Minor ihram allows you to do everything except intimacy with your spouse and what leads to it (foreplay). Once you are out of minor ihram you may wear perfume and trim your nails. Once you are out of major ihram, you may now resume conjugal relations with your spouse.
What are these four things? They may be done in any order by what the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) himself said. A man came to the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I did (number two) before I did (number one),” and he said, “No problem.” Another one said, “I did (number one) after (number three).” No problem. Another one said, “I did (number four) before (number two).” He said, “No problem.” The sahabi said, “Nobody came to him with any arrangement except that he said, ‘No problem.'” The arrangement is completely up to you. You may do any of these in any order.
- Stoning the large jamrah (Jamrah Al-‘Aqba’l-Kubra) seven times. There are three jamrahs: small, medium, and large.
- Shaving of the hair.
- The hady or the sacrifice.
- The tawaf of the Hajj itself.
As soon as you go and you do the ramy, you are out of the minor ihram. Then when you have shaved your hair, you have then done three of the four. You may shave your hair first because that is a rite of Hajj and is a part of the Hajj. You are allowed to trim the hair if you want, but the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) encouraged the shaving. Sisters should have scissors with them and go back to the tent and take out a forelock of hair and cut it. Now they are out of minor ihram.
When you do the ramy and shave your hair, you have done three of the four.
Once you do your tawaf, you are then out of complete ihram.
You may delay your tawaf and don’t have to do it on the 10th. You may do it on the 11th or 12th.
11th and 12th of Dhu’l-Hijjah
On the 11th and 12th, all you have to do is stone the three Jamrahs, starting with the small then the medium and then the large. You do this on the 11th and the 12th.The 13th is optional. On the 11th and the 12th, there is no action of worship other than stoning.
On the 10th, the stoning can be done any time after Fajr.
On the 11th and 12th, the stoning should be done after Zuhr.
That is all that you need to do on the 11th and 12th.
On the 13th, you stone all three Jamarats and leave Mina. This day is optional as it is Sunnah.
If you are doing tamattu’, then you must do a sa’ee for Hajj. The only act that remains is the farewell tawaf (tawaf’l-wada’). Some people delay their tawaf that they should have done on the 10th up until they are leaving, so they do one tawaf and say that this counts for both the tawaf of Hajj and the tawaf of wada’. This is ja’iz.
You do the tawaf of the Hajj (tawaf’l-ifadah) on the 10th, 11th, or 12th or any day up until you leave.
For the person who is doing tamattu’, there are three tawaf. The first is when you first came to Makkah, and this is the tawaf of the ‘Umrah. The second of them is the pillar of Hajj, and it is done on the 10th, 11th or 12th.
The third of them is before you leave and called the farewell tawaf (tawaf’l-wada’).
You may, if you want to, combine the second and third into one tawaf, and your niyyah is not for tawaf’l-wada’. Your niyyah will be for the tawaf of Hajj, and it will count as tawaf’l-wada’. It is up to you if you do it and it is ja’iz. You don’t need to give a fidyah or hady or anything. It is completely permissible.
You delay it until it is reasonable for you to delay. It is the very last thing that is done before leaving Makkah.
If you don’t do tawaf’l-wada’ but you did tawaf’l-wada’, you must give a hady. If you don’t do tawaf’l-wada’ but tawaf on the 10th, 11th, or 12th (i.e. the tawaf of Hajj), tawaf’l-wada’ is wajib. If you miss a wajib, you sacrifice.
Your Hajj is valid, but you must make up for it with a hady. You can combine only if you do it at the end. If you do tawaf on the 10th, you cannot combine because you didn’t leave. You have to delay the tawaf’l-ifadah to the day that you leave. Suppose your bus is leaving on the 14th, then you may do one tawaf on the 14th of Dhu’l-Hijjah that will count for both.
ARKAN: Hajj has four arkan. If you miss any of these arkan, you don’t have a Hajj.
You cannot make up a rukn; therefore, memorize these four.
- You need to declare your ihram.
- You must do one tawaf (tawaf’l-ifadah).
- You must do one sa’ee, which is the sa’ee of Hajj.
- You must stand at ‘Arafah on the 9th.
If you don’t do one of these four things, then you have not done Hajj. These are the four arkan. For everything else, in sha’Allah you can make it up.
- Enter into ihram before the miqat.
- Staying in ‘Arafah until maghrib.
- Spending the night in Muzdalifah or at least most of the night. You may leave after midnight if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
- If you miss one of the days of stoning, then it is a wajib that must be made up.
- Spending the nights of the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th in Mina
There are more than this, but these are the main wajibat.
The Intention (niyyah) has to be made before the miqat. It can be done 100 miles or 1 mile before, but it cannot be done after the miqat. Therefore, as I said, half an hour or twenty minutes before the plane lands, you say “labbayk allahumma Hajj wa ‘Umrah.”
Note for Sisters
One of the biggest controversial issues of our times is over what the sisters in their menses do if their menses will not finish before their group departs. This is a very controversial issue and a very difficult situation. My advice to the sisters is to take pills and make sure that you do not have your menses in this month. Go to your doctor and make sure that it is permissible for you medically. Don’t have your menses during this duration.
When you are taking pills, 99% of the time any blood that you see is istihadhah and therefore is ignored and doesn’t count as hayd.
If for some reason you don’t take pills and your menses start, as long as you do tawaf’l-ifadah before the menses then you are fine. The main issue is tawaf. You don’t have to worry about the prayer. You may do your du’a’s in ‘Arafah in a state of menses with no problem at all. You may do dhikr, rami, sa’y. You don’t have to have wudu’ to do sa’y. Sa’y is a separate action of worship.
The problem only is tawaf. If you have done the tawaf’l-ifadah, the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said in an authentic hadith: “The tawaf of wada’ is forgiven for menstruating women.”
The problem comes if you haven’t done tawaf and your menses start and you are departing before your menses finish. This issue has caused a lot of controversy in our times because technically it is not allowed to do tawaf in a state of menses. It is like saying to pray while in menses or fast while in menses – you don’t do it! You need to have wudu’ to do tawaf.
However, in our times there is a fatwa that is getting more and more common because of the situation that we are in which says that if a lady must perform her tawaf in this state, then she does so and it is accepted.
Some Practical Advice
Make sure you have some items:
Un-perfumed soap. Toiletries bag that you can hang. When you use the shower in Mina, there is no place to have a toiletries bag except on the shower itself, something you can hook on. Baby wipes.
Vaseline. Brothers, please get some Vaseline and apply it to your inner thighs. When you do not wear underwear, the thighs start rubbing against one another and one of the most problems is that you get skin burn and cannot walk properly. It really ruins your Hajj. Vaseline is unscented, so there is not an issue there.
Make a mental note of your tent number in Mina. Always have cash on you. The best way to carry cash is to use a money belt. If you have some basic money (50 riyals), and you know your tent in Mina, then alhamdulillah Hajj is easy.